#### 73.2% of Likely Voters Believe Poll Results

Pollster: Who will you vote for? Civilian: Oh, I don't know; that guy, the tall one. Pollster: I'll put you down for Obama. The elections in Iowa are over and…

#### Hurricanes have not increased: misuse of running means

Most statistics purporting to show that there has been an increase in hurricanes do not use the best statistical methods. I want to highlight one particular method that is often…

#### Were the cannonballs on or off the road first?

There’s something of a controversy whether photographer Roger Fenton placed cannon balls in a road and then took pictures of them. He also took a picture of the same road cleared of cannon balls. Apparently, there is a question whether the cannon balls were ON the road when he got there, or possibly they were OFF and he placed them there to get a more dramatic photo. This drama unfolds at Errol Morris’s New York Times blog.

Whether they were first ON or OFF (Morris uses the capitals letters, so I will, too), excited considerable interest, with hundreds of people commenting one way or the other, each commenter offering some evidence to support his position.

Some people used the number (Morris uses the ‘#’ symbol) and position of the balls, others argued sun shadows, some had some words about gravity, and so on. Morris compiled the evidence used by both sides, ON (cannon balls on first) and OFF (cannon balls placed there by Fenton), and he presented this summary picture (go to his blog to see the full-sized image):

This is an awful graph: the order of evidence types is arbitrary, it would have been better to list them in order of importance; the use of color is overwhelming and difficult to follow; and, worst of all, the two graphs are on an absolute scale. 288 people supported ON, and 153 OFF, so counting the absolute numbers and comparing them, as this picture does, is not fair. Of course the ON side, with almost twice as many people, will have higher counts in most of the bins. What’s needed is a percentage comparison.

#### Two differences in perception between global cooling and global warming

As is well known by now, a passel of climatologists in the 1970s, including such personalities as Stephen “It’s OK to Exaggerate To Get People To Believe” Schneider, tried to get the world excited about the possibility, and the dire consequences, of global cooling.

From the 1940s to near the end of the 1970s, the global mean temperature did indeed trend downwards. Using this data as a start, and from the argument that any change in climate is bad, and anything that is bad must be somebody’s fault, Schneider and others began to warn that an ice age was imminent, and that it was mainly our fault.

The causes of this global cooling were said to be due to two main things: orbital forcing and an increase in particulate matter—aerosols—in the atmosphere. The orbital forcing—a fancy term meaning changes in the earth’s distance and orientation to the sun, and the consequent alterations in the amount of solar energy we get as a result of these changes—was, as I hope is plain, nobody’s fault, and because of that, it excited very little interest.

But the second cause had some meat behind it; because, do you see, aerosols can be made by people. Drive your car, manufacture oil, smelt some iron, even breath and you are adding aerosols to the atmosphere. Some of these particles, if they diffuse to the right part of the atmosphere, will reflect direct sunshine back into space, depriving us of its beneficial warming effects. Other aerosols will gather water around them and form clouds, which both reflect direct radiation and capture outgoing radiation—clouds both cool and warm, and the overall effect was largely unknown. Aerosols don’t hang around in the air forever. Since they are heavy, over time they will fall or wash out. It’s also hard to do too much to reduce the man-made aerosol burden of the atmosphere; except the obvious and easy things, like install cleaner smoke stacks.

Pause during the 1980s when nothing much happened to the climate.

#### Can increasing fuel economy standards result in more gas consumed?

Yes. Congress recently passed an increase in fuel efficiency standards for cars, from 25 MPG to 35 MPG, a 40% jump. So you would expect that, when this law goes…

#### Hurricanes have not increased in the North Atlantic

My paper on this subject will finally appear in the Journal of Climate soon. You can see it's status (temporarily, anyway) at this link. You can download the paper here.…

#### How to Exaggerate Your Results: Case study #1

In the Tuesday, 6 November 2007 edition of the Wall Street Journal, Pfizer took out a full-page ad encouraging people to "Ask your doctor" about Lipitor, a drug which claims…