Summary Against Modern Thought: The Last Judgement

Summary Against Modern Thought: The Last Judgement

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In the long run, as the man said, we shall be dead.


1 From the foregoing it is clear, then, that there is a twofold retribution for what a man does in life: one for the soul—and this he receives as soon as the soul has been separated from the body, but there will be another retribution when the bodies are assumed again—and some will receive bodies which are incapable of suffering and glorious; but others, bodies capable of suffering and ignoble.

The first retribution is made to men singly and one by one, in that men die separately and one by one. But the second retribution will be made to all and at the same time in that all will rise at the same time. Every retribution, of course, wherein different decisions are rendered according to differing merits demands a judgment. Necessarily, therefore, the judgment is twofold: There is one, regarding the soul, in which separately and one by one punishment or reward is determined; there is another common one, however, regarding the soul and body—in it there will be determined for all at the same time what they have earned.

2 And since by His humanity in which He suffered and rose again Christ earned for us both resurrection and eternal life, it is to Him that universal judgment belongs, in which those who rise are rewarded or punished. For this reason we read of Him in John (5:27): “He has given Him power to do judgment, because He is the Son of man.”

3 A judgment, of course, ought to be proportional to the matters judged. And because the last judgment will be about the reward or punishment of visible bodies, it is suitable that it be carried on visibly. Hence, also, Christ will carry out that judgment in the form of humanity which all may be able to see, both the good and the wicked. The sight of His divinity, however, makes men blessed, as was shown in Book III. Accordingly, this will be visible only to the good. The judgment of the soul, of course, since it is about invisible things, is carried on invisibly.

4 Granted, of course, that Christ has the authoritative act of judging in that last judgment nonetheless at the same time those will judge with Him—sitting with the judge, as it were—who adhered to Him more than others. These are the Apostles, of whom it was said: “You, who have followed Me, shall sit on twelve seats judging the twelve tribes of Israel” (Mat. 19:2.8); and this promise is extended also to those who follow in the footprints of the Apostles.


  1. jerome joculus

    This is really a modern thought because the early centuries didn’t make such a weird distinction. And by making such a weird diatinxtion he merely made people think Chriatianity is weird and contradictory which is why Aquinas in the 12th century led to the Hugenots in the 13th which led to Protestantism over the next few centuries. Protestantism was primarily a rebellion against Aquinas’ weird views but because the RCC insiated on sticking to them it ended up destroying the RCC. Now we can sit back and laugh as the RCC further destroys itself with 2 popes at once and all manner of other foolishness.

  2. C-Marie


    “On the feast of St. Nicholas [in 1273, Aquinas] was celebrating Mass when he received a revelation that so affected him that he wrote and dictated no more, leaving his great work the Summa Theologiae unfinished. To Brother Reginald’s (his secretary and friend) expostulations he replied, “The end of my labors has come. All that I have written appears to be as so much straw after the things that have been revealed to me.” When later asked by Reginald to return to writing, Aquinas said, “I can write no more. I have seen things that make my writings like straw.” (

    Aquinas died three months later while on his way to the ecumenical council of Lyons.”

    God is complete. We have been given what we need for eternal salvation …. but there is so much more to Him.

    God bless, C-Marie

  3. Barry Malcolm

    Maybe Aquinas acquired pagan or Assyrian documents which cast doubt (assuredly) about the “historical” Jesus? He may have had the integrity to not be a propagandist ?

  4. C-Marie

    Well, this is witness enough.

    “6 He it is, Jesus Christ, whose coming has been made known to us by water and blood; water and blood as well, not water only; and we have the Spirit’s witness that Christ is the truth. 6 He it is, Jesus Christ, whose coming has been made known to us by water and blood; water and blood as well, not water only; and we have the Spirit’s witness that Christ is the truth. 8 and we have a threefold warrant on earth, the Spirit, the water, and the blood, three witnesses that conspire in one. 9 We are ready to trust human authority; is not divine authority higher still? And we have that higher divine authority for this; God has borne witness to his own Son.
    10 The man who believes in the Son of God has this divine attestation in his heart; the man who does not believe in the Son treats God as a liar; although God himself has borne witness to his Son, he has refused to believe in it. 11 And what is the truth so attested? That God has given us eternal life, and that this life is to be found in his Son. 1 John 5: 6-11.

    God bless, C-Marie

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